The incident occurred late Tuesday north of the provincial capital Firoz Koh, with the government calling it a revenge attack after a local Daesh commander was killed.
"Our security forces with the help of locals conducted an operation and killed a Daesh (IS) commander yesterday. Daesh fighters in return abducted around 30 villagers, mostly shepherds," Ghor Governor Nasir Khazeh told AFP.
"Their dead bodies were found by local people this morning."
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There has so far been no official claim of responsibility from the group.
The killings underscore unravelling security in Afghanistan as the resurgent Taliban continue a push into urban centres 15 years after they were toppled from power by the US invasion .
Daesh fighters are also making steady inroads into Afghanistan, winning over sympathisers, recruiting followers and challenging the Taliban on their own turf, primarily in the country´s east.